Skip to main content

Table 1 Treg homeostatic changes have been found in various diseases

From: Pathological conditions re-shape physiological Tregs into pathological Tregs

Pathological conditions Major phenotypes PMIDs Reference #
Atherosclerosis coronary disease (CAD) Tregs in chronic stable angina patients → 20539016 [23]
  Tregs in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction ↑   
  Tregs in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients ↓   
  Ratio of CD4+CD2S+Foxp3+/CD4+ T cells in patients with acute coronary syndrome ↓ 18294918 [24]
  CD4+CD2S+Foxp3+ Tregs in patients with unstable CAD ↓ 17512253 [25]
End stage kidney disease Tregs sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis 20429423 [26]
Type II diabetes
  Ratio of CD4+CD2Shigh Treg/Th17 ↓ 21964948 [27]
  Ratio of CD4+CD2Shigh Treg/Th1 ↓ 21169542 [28]
  Peripheral induced CD4+Foxp3+Helios Tregs ↓   
  Bcl-2/Bax ratio in CD4+CD2Shigh Tregs ↓   
Obesity-linked insulin resistance Natural Tregs↓ 21911743 [29]
  Adaptive Tregs in visceral adipose tissue ↑   
Obesity Circulating C04+CD25÷CD127-Foxp3+ Tregs ↓ and inversely correlated with body weight 23592653 [30]
  Visceral adipose Tregs ↓ 21298111 [31]
Allergy Individuals may develop allergy (Th2 predominant) or recovery (Tr1 predominant) depending on the balance between allergen-specific Th2 and Tr1 15173208, 14987885 [32,33]
   12704370 [34]
  CD4+CD25+ Tregs inhibit TH1 and TH2, cytokine production in atopic patients   
SLE (lupus) CD4+CD2S+, CD4+CD69+ and CD4+CD2Shigh Tregs ↓ 14599852 [35]
  The frequency →, and function of CD4+CD25+ cells ↓, CD4+Foxp3+ 16890406 [36]
  The ratio and number of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ nTregs ↓ 17670847 [37]
  The ratio of CD4+IL-1G÷ iTregs, but the number →   
Rheumatoid arthritis CD4+CD2sbright Tregs cell in joint fluid ↑ 15807863, [38]
  CD4+CD2sbright Tregs cell in peripheral blood ↓ 15225369, 16571607 [39,40]
  Function of CD4+CD25+Tregs ↓ 15280421 [41]
Severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis CD4+CD25bright 15128835 [42]
Sepsis Ratio of circulating CD4.CD25÷CD45RO+CD69 Tregs/CD4+CD25— Teffectorst ↑ 12847405, 15640650 [43,44]
   18946659 [45]
  Increased CD4+CD25+CD127Foxp3+ Tregs contribute to lymphocyte anergy Percentage of CD4+CD25+ Treg ↑ 15640650 [44]
  Resistance of Treg to apoptosis processes 11292647, 15817707 [46,47]
Injury CD4+CD25+ Treg function ↑ after burn injury 16365414 [48]
  CD3+CD4+CD2ShighCDl27lowFoxp3+ ↑ in patients with acute lung injury 19770521 [49]
Graft rejection The frequencies and proportion of CD4+CD2S+Foxp3+ Tregs → in allograft acceptors and rejecters, but the Foxp3 expression levels in Tregs in acceptor patients are 50% higher than rejecter patients 19109145 [50]
  Cotransfer of purified CD4+CD2S+ Tregs along with the CD4+CD25 T cells significantly delay graft versus host disease 11390438 [51]
  Inducible Tregs prolong allograft survival without newly formed innate Tregs entering the periphery 14707064 [52]
  TCR+CD4CD8 Tregs mediate acceptance of skin allografts by inducing the deletion of alloreactive CD8+ T cells 10888927 [53]
  FoxP3+ Treg/CD3+ T cell ratio positively correlated with graft function at 2 years after transplantation 18495961 [54]
Cancer CD4+CD25high Tregs ↑ in circulating and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with epithelial malignancies, inhibiting the proliferation of conventional T cells and IFN-y production 11466340 [55]
  CD4+CD25high Tregs with positive lL.10/TGF-p/CTLA-4 ↑ in peripheral blood, lymph nodes and tumor tissue in patients with pancreatic and breast cancer 12193750 [56]
  IL-lO-producing CD4+CD2Shigh Tregs ↑ in PB, TILs, draining LNs, and ascites fluid in gastro-esophageal cancers, which were strongly associated to disease stage 14555512, 15734494, 16328385, 12942579 [57-60]
  CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs ↑ in PB, malignant ascites, tumoral tissue, and draining INs in patients with ovarian cancer patients 15322536 [61]
  Circulating CD4+CD25high Tregs ↑ in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLI), B cell-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL5) 15914560, 16403912, 17047079 [62-64]
  CD4+CD25highCD45RACD69CD45RO+CD9S+ Tregs ↑ in acute myeloid leukemia and present higher apoptosis and proliferation 16313258 [65]
  1. ↑: significant increase, ↓: significant decrease, →: no change.