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Table 3 The definition of secondary outcomes and surrogated endpoints of included trials

From: Mannitol cannot reduce the mortality on acute severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients: a meta–analyses and systematic review

Author Patients Interventions Outcomes Definition of surrogated endpoints
Vialet et al. [49] Severe head injury (GCS <8); follow up to 3 months The mannitol group receives 20 % mannitol solution. The hypertonic saline group received 7.5 % hypertonic saline. The infused volume was the same for the both solutions: 2 mL/kg body weight in 20 min Death and neurological disability reported HS caused a greater decrease in ICP than mannitol
Harutjunyan et al. [50] Severe neuronal damage (GCS <8). Seventeen patients received 7.2 % NaCl/HES 200/0.5 and 15 received mannitol Death reported HES caused a greater decrease in ICP than mannitol (57 vs. 48 %; p <0.01)
Francony et al. [51] Severe brain injury (trauma, stroke); they were aged >18 years and had sustained elevated ICP of >20 mmHg for >10 min. Follow up to 3 months The mannitol group received 231 mL of 20 % mannitol. The hypertonic saline group received 100 mL of 7.45 % hypertonic saline. Both to be administrated via the central venous catheter in 20 min ICP, CPP, MAP reported ICP decreasing did not differ between the two groups. Mannitol if effective than HS in CPP
Cottenceau et al. [52] Severe head injury (GCS <8); follow up to 6 months The mannitol group received 4 mL/Kg of 20 % mannitol. The hypertonic saline group received 2 mL/Kg of 7.5 % hypertonic saline. Both be administrated in 20 min Neurological outcome reported Neurological outcome and ICP decreasing did not differ between the groups