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Table 2 Overview of the physical effects of vacuum massage on epidermis/dermis/hypodermis

From: The physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on the different skin layers: a current status of the literature

Paper Tissue hardness subjective Tissue hardness objective Elasticity subjective Elasticity objective Skin fold thickness Scar adhesions Face volume Skin laxity Epidermal thickness Skin roughness Colour subjective
Delprat et al. 1995 [12]       Decreased      
Gavroy et al. 1996 [22]       Decreased      
Adcock et al. 2001 [23]   Decreased          
Revuz et al. 2002 [19]     No changes    Decreased Decreased    
Innocenzi et al. 2002 [20]          Increased   
Innocenzi et al. 2003 [21]          Increased   
Ortonne et al. 2003 [26]      Decreased      Decreased  
Worret et al. 2004 [3] Decreased   Increased Increased        Decreased
Moseley et al. 2007 [24] Decreased Decreased Increased         
Bourgeois et al. 2008 [27] Decreased          Decreased Decreased
Monteux et al. 2008 [13]      Decreased       
Scuderi et al. 2008 [28] Decreased        Decreased    
Marquez-Rebollo et al. 2014 [17] Decreased   Increased         
Majani et al. 2013 [18] Decreased   Increased