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Table 3 Overview of the physiological effects of vacuum massage on epidermis/dermis/hypodermis

From: The physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on the different skin layers: a current status of the literature

Paper Blood perfusion Dermo-hypodermal junction Collagen content Collagen orientation Venous flow velocity Lymphatic flow tcpO2 Fibroblasts Fibroblast phenotype Dermal interstitial space Superficial vascular surface Pain Itch Altered gene profile
Lucassen et al. 1997 [15]       Decreased         
Adcock et al. 1998 [1]       Decreased         
Watson et al. 1999 [2]   Decreased             
Lattarulo et al. 2001 [14]     No changes    Decreased Decreased       
Revuz et al. 2002 [19]          Increased      
Innocenzi et al. 2002 [20]          Increased      
Innocenzi et al. 2003 [21]      Decreased      Decreased     
Ortonne et al. 2003 [26] Decreased   Increased Increased        Decreased    
Worret et al. 2004 [3] Decreased Decreased Increased          Decreased   
Bourgeois et al. 2008 [27] Decreased          Decreased Decreased Decreased Decreased  
Marques et al. 2011 [16]      Decreased          Yes
Majani et al. 2013 [18] Decreased        Decreased       
  1. tcpO2 transcutaneous oxygen pressure