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Table 4 Overview of treatment parameters

From: The physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on the different skin layers: a current status of the literature

Paper Device Intensity Techniques Treatment time in minutes No. of treatments Frequency/week
Delprat et al. 1995 [12] LPG® Details not available Details not available 5 Min. 15 Between 3 and 7
Gavroy et al. 1996 [22] LPG® 5 Technique selection based on pathology 4 Details not available Details not available
Lucassen et al. 1997 [15] Details not available 200 mBar Unidirectional pinch/roll pulsating 15 40 3
Adcock et al. 1998 [1] LPG® Increasing Smoothing, bouncing, figure eight, popping 10 4, 10 or 20 1 or 2
Watson et al. 1999 [2] LPG® 6 or 7 Smoothing, bouncing, figure eight 20 2 2×/day
Adcock et al. 2001 [23] LPG® 3–5–7–9 Smoothing, bouncing, figure eight, popping, kneading 10 4, 10 or 20 1 or 2
Lattarulo et al. 2001 [14] LPG® Details not available Details not available 20 1 1x/day
Revuz et al. 2002 [19] LPG® Lift 6 Details not available Details not available 15 24 3
Innocenzi et al. 2002 [20] LPG® Details not available Details not available 11 14 2 or 3
Innocenzi et al. 2003 [21] LPG® Details not available Details not available 11 14 2 or 3
Ortonne et al. 2003 [26] LPG® Details not available Pre-defined in practical protocola 35 16, 22 or 28 2
Worret et al. 2004 [3] LPG® Details not available Pre-defined “scars” programme of device Details not available 13 1
Moseley et al. 2007 [24] LPG® Details not available Pre-defined in practical protocola 30 16 4
Bourgeois et al. 2008 [27] LPG® Details not available Pre-defined in practical protocola 10 15 3
Monteux et al. 2008 [13] LPG® Details not available Pre-defined in practical protocola Details not available 12 3
Scuderi et al. 2008 [28] ICOONE®/LPG® 10/5 Pre-defined in practical protocola 35 10 2
Marques et al. 2011 [16] LPG® Details not available Pre-defined in practical protocola 30 12 2
Majani et al. 2013 [18] LPG® Details not available Frequency: continuous for mature scars, 4 Hz for edema, 8-16 Hz for vascularization Details not available Between 8 and 20 2
Marquez-Rebollo et al. 2014 [17] LPG® Details not available Forward, backward, sidelong and diagonal movements 15–40 12 2
  1. aThe techniques were cited by the authors as pre-defined in a practical protocol which was not described in the article