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Table 1 Trauma-induced changes in immunity that are associated with and/or predictive of adverse patient outcomes

From: The diagnostic and prognostic value of systems biology research in major traumatic and thermal injury: a review

   Increased risk of nosocomial infection Development of sepsis Mortality
Neutrophils Frequency Increased [60]   
Phenotype Decreased CD88 [80] Increased CD11b [81]
Decreased CD88 [80]
Decreased CD88 [80]
Function Decreased anti-microbial function [82] Decreased anti-microbial function [83, 84]
Decreased chemotaxis [85]
Monocytes Frequency Decreased [60]   
Phenotype Decreased HLA-DR [80, 86] Decreased HLA-DR [61, 8789] Decreased HLA-DR [88]
Increased intracellular TLR9 expression [33]
Function Decreased LPS-induced TNF-α secretion [90, 91]   
killer cells
Frequency Decreased [92]   
Leukocytes Frequency Increased [60]   Increased [93]
Gene expression Increased expression of inflammation-related genes [15, 22]   Increased P38 MAPK and IL-6 expression [22, 23]
Decreased expression of genes related to antigen presentation and T cell regulation [15, 22, 23]
Lymphocytes Frequency Decreased [60, 93]   Decreased [93]
  1. Abbreviations: HLA-DR human leukocyte antigen-DR, IL-6 interleukin-6, LPS lipopolysaccharide, MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase, TLR toll-like receptor, TNF tumour necrosis factor alpha