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Table 2 Examples of trauma-induced inflammatory responses that are associated with and/or predictive of adverse patient outcomes

From: The diagnostic and prognostic value of systems biology research in major traumatic and thermal injury: a review

  Increased risk of nosocomial infection Development of sepsis Development of MODS/MOF Mortality
IL-6 Elevated levels at admission post blunt trauma [60] Elevated levels following thermal injury [55, 56] Elevated levels post severe trauma [43, 53, 94] Elevated in non-survivors following thermal injury [10, 11, 45, 47] and TBI [42]
IL-8   Elevated levels following thermal injury [55, 56]   Elevated in non-survivors following thermal injury [10, 45, 47] and TBI [42]
IL-10    Elevated levels post severe trauma [43] Elevated levels associated with increased risk of death post thermal injury [95] and TBI [42, 50]
IL1-RA Elevated levels at admission post blunt trauma [60]   Elevated levels post severe traum [43, 94] Elevated in non-survivors following thermal injury [11, 47]
MCP-1 Elevated levels at admission post blunt trauma [60]    Elevated in non-survivors following thermal injury [10, 11, 47]
  1. Abbreviations: IL interleukin, IL1-RA interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein, MODS multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MOF multiple organ failure, TBI traumatic brain injury