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Table 1 Summary of the effects of oestrogen and testosterone on various organs

From: The influence of sex steroid hormones on the response to trauma and burn injury

Organ Oestrogen Testosterone
Effect References Effect References
Heart • Improved left ventricular function
• Improved cardiac output
• Enhanced p38MAPK, Akt, eNOS and HSP expression
• Reduction in IL-6, NFκB and TNF-α
[70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79] • Depressed myocardial function
• Suppression of Akt anti-apoptotic pathways
• Reduced expression of Bcl-2
• Chronic administration improves function and reduces tissue damage
Lungs • Decreased lung congestion, oedema and inflammation
• Decreased emphysematous changes
• Enhanced eNOS/PKG expression
• Decreased KDC, MIF, TLR-4 and ERK expression
• Reduction in IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, CINC-1 and MIP-2
[87, 105,106,107,108,109,110, 159] • Increased lung permeability and inflammation
• Increased nitric oxide levels
Liver • Reduction in liver congestion, portal inflammation and focal necrosis
• Enhanced Kupffer cell function
• Reduction in IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α and MIP-2
• Increased expression of Bcl-2
• Reduced ET-1 response
[68, 71, 87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96] • Reduced hepatic microvascular blood flow
• Diminished hepatocellular function
Spleen • Stimulation of splenocyte proliferation
• Increased IL-2 and IL-3
• Improved splenic macrophage and T lymphocyte function
• Prevented apoptosis of splenic dendritic cells
• Improved splenic dendritic cell function
• Enhanced MHC II expression
[52, 55,56,57,58,59,60] • Reduces MHC II expression
• Depressed cell-mediated immune response
Intestines • Reduced ET-1 response
• Enhanced p38MAPK and Akt expression
• Reduction in MPO, ICAM-1, CINC-1, CINC-3, MIP-2 and IL-6
[101,102,103,104] • Enhances local pro-inflammatory response [45, 97, 98]
Brain/Nerves • Reduced iNOS expression
• Reduction in hypothalamic TNF-α
• Preservation of blood brain barrier integrity
• Inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9
[113,114,115,116,117] • Inhibition of caspase-3, MPO and XO activity
• Reduction in malondialdehyde
• Increased catalase levels
• Maintains cellular and structural integrity
• Preserves neural function
Kidneys • Enhanced Akt and eNOS expression
• Reduction in neutrophil infiltration
[127, 128] • Reduced NOS, Akt and ERK expression
• Low doses: increased IL-10 and reduction in T cell infiltration
[125, 126]
  1. MAPK Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase; eNOS endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase; HSP Heat Shock Protein; IL Interleukin; NFκB Nuclear Factor Kappa B; TNF-α Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha; PKG Protein Kinase G; KDC Keratinocyte-derived Chemokines; MIF Migration Inhibitory Factor; TLR Toll-like Receptor; ICAM Intracellular Adhesion Molecule; CINC Cytokine-induced Neutrophil Chemoattractant; MIP; Macrophage Inflammatory Protein; Bcl-2 B-cell lymphoma-2; ET Endothelin; MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex; MPO Myeloperoxidase; iNOS inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase; MMP Matrix Metalloproteinase