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Table 2 Summary of cited studies on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

From: Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on post-surgical complications against the backdrop of the opioid crisis

Study Population # of patients Male/female Pathology NSAIDs studied NSAID effect
Kempfer et al. 2003 [16] Mice N/A Female Wound healing SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor), diclofenac, and celecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) SC-560 and diclofenac, but not celecoxib, impaired wound repair
Goren et al. 2015 [17] Mice N/A Female Acute wound healing SC-560, diclofenac, and celecoxib Diclofenac impaired wound healing by reducing blood vessel formation
Fairweather et al. 2015 [18] Mice N/A Female Cutaneous wound healing Celecoxib Delayed wound healing through reduced PGE2
Iwamoto et al. 2017 [19] Mice N/A Female and male Corneal wound healing Diclofenac Delayed wound healing through inhibition of 12-HHT/BLT2 pathway
Romana-Sousa et al. 2016 [22] Mice N/A Male Pressure ulcers Celecoxib Improved wound healing through decreased iNOS
dos Santos et al. 2013 [24] Mice N/A Female and male Cutaneous wound healing Aspirin Impaired female, but not male, wound healing
Blomme et al. 2003 [25] Mice N/A Female Surgical skin wound healing SC-791 (COX-2 inhibitor), diclofenac No effect
Krischak et al. 2007 [26] Rats N/A Male Incisional wound healing Diclofenac Decreased fibroblast proliferation, but no effect on wound healing
Hamilton et al. 2008 [28] Mice N/A Female GAS infection following muscle injury Toradol Increased GAS in injured muscles
Hamilton et al. 2014 [29] Mice N/A Female GAS soft tissue infection Toradol, ibuprofen, indomethacin, SC-560, SC-236 (COX-2 inhibitor) Nonselective inhibitors reduced antibiotic efficacy and increased mortality. Selective inhibitors had no effect
Weng et al. 2011 [30] Mice N/A Female GAS soft tissue infection Ibuprofen Increased GAS infection and mortality
Kelley et al. 2016 [49] Humans 443 Not found Wound healing Ibuprofen Ibuprofen does not increase bleeding
Zura et al. 2016 [45] Humans 309,330 57.9% women Bone healing Various NSAIDs increased non-union
Sagi et al. 2014 [46] Humans 98 27.6% women Bone healing Indomethacin Indomethacin may increase non-union or decrease heterotropic ossification
Jeffcoach et al. 2014 [47] Humans 1901 44% women Bone healing Various NSAIDs increase malunion/non-union and infection in long bone fractures
Depeter et al. 2017 [48] Humans (children 6 months–17 years) 808 37% women Bone healing Ibuprofen Children with extremity fracture do not demonstrate inhibited healing with ibuprofen
Lisboa et al. 2017 [50] Humans (combat-related extremity wounds) 73 Not found Wound healing Various NSAIDs decreased inflammation and help wound healing
Nagano et al. 2016 [44] Mouse MC3T3-E1 Cell line N/A Not found Bone formation and fracture healing Celecoxib Celecoxib inhibited osteoblast maturation by suppressing Wnt signaling
Smith et al. 2016 [33] Humans 657 Not found Anastomic leaks Various Post-operative nonselective NSAID use, but not COX 2 inhibitors, increased anastomic dehiscence
Paulasir et al. 2015 [34] Humans 4360 56.7% women Anastomic leaks Various No difference
Subendran et al. 2014 [35] Humans 262 45% women Anastomic leaks Various Non-significant increase in anastomic leaks (p = 0.06)
Saleh et al. 2014 [36] Humans 731 43% women Anastomic leaks Toradol No difference
Mikaeloff et al. 2008 [37] Humans (primary varicella or zoster diabnosis) 248,368 48% women—varicella patients; 61% women—zoster patients Complications of varicella or zoster infection Various Elevated risk of severe skin and soft tissue complications
Klein et al. 2012 [43] Humans 162 80% women Bleeding after laparoscopic Roux-en-y bypass Toradol Lower post op hemoglobin
Flossmann et al. 2007 [53] Humans 7588 Female and male Colorectal cancer Aspirin Daily dose aspirin is effective in primary prevention of colorectal cancer
Huang et al. 2018 [55] Humans (who had surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer) 588 Female and male Survival length post-surgery Flurbiprofen axetil The use of flurbiprofen axetil combined with dexamethasone was associated with longer survival
Yin et al. 2018 [56] Humans (with bone metastasis) 210 Female and male Levels of interleukin-6, prostacyclin, corticosteroid A2 Flurbiprofen Flurbiprofen lowered levels of prostacyclin and corticosteroid A2, but did not affect interleukin-6
  1. Cited studies are summarized. Clinical studies are on adult patients unless otherwise specified. In animal studies, if the study included male and female animals, they are age-matched and equal in ratio. In clinical studies, the male/female ratios are presented as % women if the information was given in the paper. Specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) names are given when supplied by the authors and are non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors unless otherwise specified at first mention in the table