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Table 1 Summary of lasers, intense pulsed light, radiofrequency, and ultrasound for traumatic scars

From: Advances in the treatment of traumatic scars with laser, intense pulsed light, radiofrequency, and ultrasound

Devices Mechanism Clinical outcome
Pulsed dye laser, potassium titanyl phosphate laser, and intense pulsed light Target hemoglobin and decrease blood supply [25]; increase expression of CTGF [26, 27] Improve scar color, texture, and pliability [23, 28,29,30,31]
Factional lasers Fractional photothermolysis [33, 34] and collagen remodeling [38,39,40] Improve in appearance and contracture [35, 42,43,44], relieve pain and pruritus [35, 41, 42], and facilitate drug delivery [45, 46]
Radiofrequency devices Create micro-plasma sparks and induce thermolysis [51,52,53] Effective for both hypertrophic and atrophic scars [52, 54] and facilitate drug delivery [57,58,59]
Ultrasound Acoustic pressure and “hammering” effect [57] Adjuvant therapy for traumatic scars [57,58,59]
  1. CTGF connective tissue growth factor