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Table 1 Characteristics of patient demographics, co-morbidities, mechanisms of traumatic injury, outcomes, life-saving interventions (LSI), vital signs, laboratory results and triage trauma scores

From: Development of a heart rate variability and complexity model in predicting the need for life-saving interventions amongst trauma patients

  LSI (n = 49) Non-LSI (n = 176) P value
Patient demographics
 Age (median, IQR) 39, 27–53 44, 31–62 0.051
 Age> 56 (n, %) 9, 18.36% 62, 35.23% 0.025
 Male (n, %) 42, 85.71% 115, 65.34% 0.006
 Chinese (n, %) 28, 57.14% 105, 59.66% 0.751
 Ischemic heart disease (n, %) 0, 0.00% 9, 5.11% 0.106
 Diabetes mellitus (n, %) 3, 0.06% 21, 11.93% 0.244
 Hypertension (n, %) 7, 14.29% 36, 20.45% 0.331
 Hyperlipidemia (n, %) 3, 0.06% 26, 14.77% 0.110
 Congestive cardiac failure (n, %) 1, 0.02% 3, 0.02% 0.875
 Cancer (n, %) 0, 0.00% 13, 0.07% 0.052
 Respiratory disease (n, %) 2, 0.04% 10, 0.06% 0.659
 Renal disease (n, %) 0, 0.00% 6, 0.03% 0.190
Mechanisms of traumatic injury
 Fall (n, %) 7, 14.29% 87, 49.43% < 0.001
 Road traffic accident (n, %) 19, 38.78% 46, 26.14% 0.084
 Burns (n, %) 9, 18.37% 15, 0.09% 0.048
 Others (n, %) 14, 28.57% 28, 15.91% 0.044
Outcomes
 Intensive care unit admission (n, %) 22, 44.90% 5, 2.84% < 0.001
 Death (n, %) 10, 20.41% 1, 0.57% < 0.001
 Overall stay (median, IQR) 21, 9–106 3, 2–15 < 0.001
LSI (n, %) 49, 21.78%   
 Operating theatre within 24 h, for trauma (n, %) 35, 71.43%   
 Endotracheal intubation (n, %) 10, 20.41%   
 Blood transfusion (n, %) 16, 32.65%   
Vital signs
 Heart rate, beats per minute (mean ± SD) 93.49 ± 21.28 85.42 ± 16.32 0.020
 Respiratory rate, breaths per minute (median, IQR) 18.00, 14–19 18.00, 18–18 0.396
 Temperature, degrees Celsius (median, IQR) 36.50, 31.3–36.7 36.70, 36.1–36.9 0.972
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg (mean ± SD) 126.14 ± 29.59 138.45 ± 24.76 0.238
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (mean ± SD) 75.41 ± 19.31 77.40 ± 14.84 0.106
 Oxygen saturation, % (median, IQR) 99, 98–100 100, 98–100 0.397
 Glasgow coma scale (median, IQR) 15, 3–15 15, 15–15 < 0.001
 Pain score, out of 10 (median, IQR) 6, 0–9 7, 0–10 0.798
Laboratory results
 Haemoglobin (mean ± SD) 13.97 ± 2.55 (n = 49) 13.48 ± 2.38 (n = 151) 0.852
 pH (median, IQR) 7.00, 7.00–7.31 (n = 17) 7.36, 7.25–7.41 (n = 22) 0.038
 Lactate (median, IQR) 2.7, 2.1–3.6 (n = 23) 2.2, 1.8–3.3 (n = 38) 0.015
Triage trauma scores
 T-RTS (median, IQR) 12, 8–12 12, 12–12 < 0.001
 MEWS (median, IQR) 1, 1–3 1, 1–2 < 0.001
 M-GAP (median, IQR) 25, 17–26 27, 22–29 0.002
 GAP (median, IQR) 22, 12–24 24, 19–24 0.011
  1. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, T-RTS Triage Revised Trauma Score, MEWS Modified Early Warning System, M-GAP Mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale, Age and Arterial blood pressure, GAP Glasgow Coma Scale, Age and Systolic blood pressure