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Table 1 Representative growth factors and their applications for intractable wounds

From: Advances in surgical applications of growth factors for wound healing

Growth factors Administration Function Effective wound type
PDGF Topical Regulate cell growth and division, chemoattractant for mesenchymal cells, angiogenesis Diabetic foot ulcers
VEGF Topical Initiate angiogenesis; proliferation and migration of endothelial cells Diabetic foot ulcers
EGF Topical or intralesional injection Stimulate proliferation and migration of keratinocytes; increase tensile strength of new skin Burns, non-healing ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers
bFGF Topical Stimulate proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in injured skin Pressure ulcers, venous ulcers, and burns
GM-CSF Topical or subcutaneous injection Recruit Langerhans cells, stimulate proliferation and differentiation Non-healing wounds and venous ulcers
  1. PDGF platelet-derived growth factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, EGF epidermal growth factor, bFGF basic fibroblast growth factor, GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor