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Table 3 Demographic, vital signs and management of patients that underwent life-saving interventions

From: Timely completion of multiple life-saving interventions for traumatic haemorrhagic shock: a retrospective cohort study

  Timely life-saving interventions (n = 54) Delayed life-saving interventions (n = 114) P value
Age (years) 40.2 (SD 15.7) 40.1 (SD 19.6) 0.97
Male, n (%) 45 (83.3%) 76 (66.7%) 0.02
Pre-hospital GCS 13 (IQR 4–14) 13 (IQR 8–14) 0.55
Pre-hospital SBP (mmHg) 63.5 (SD 33.8) 74.0 (SD 25.4) 0.12
Pre-hospital HR (b/min) 122.3 (SD 16.2) 121.9 (SD 16.3) 0.88
Trauma centre SBP (mmHg) 116.4 (SD 48.5) 111.7 (SD 38.5) 0.50
Trauma centre HR (b/min) 107.4 (SD 31.4) 110.4 (SD 29.1) 0.54
Initial lactate (mmol/l)*    0.42
 0–2.0 7 24
 2.1–4.0 18 34
 ≥ 4.0 22 40
Coagulopathy (INR > 1.5), n (%) 30 (55.5%) 60 (52.6%) 0.72
Initial haemoglobin (g/dl) 113.5 (SD 22.1) 117.7 (SD 27.1) 0.34
ISS    0.17
 < 26 12 (22.2%) 42 (36.8%)
 26–35 17 (31.5%) 31 (27.2%)
 36–45 10 (18.5%) 22 (19.3%)
 > 45 15 (27.8%) 19 (16.7%)
Number of interventions    0.94
 1 8 (14.8%) 22 (19.3%)
 2 9 (16.7%) 19 (16.7%)
 3 15 (27.8%) 33 (28.9%)
 4 17 (31.5%) 30 (26.3%)
 5 5 (9.6%) 10 (8.8%)
Pre-hospital time    < 0.01
 < 1.0 h 10 (18.5%) 15 (13.2%)
 1.0 to < 1.5 h 24 (44.4%) 26 (22.8%)
 1.5 to < 2.0 h 18 (33.3%) 28 (24.6%)
 2.0 to < 2.5 h 2 (3.7%) 18 (15.8%)
 ≥ 2.5 h 0 27 (23.7%)
Pre-hospital care time    < 0.01
 < 1.0 h 36 38
 1.0–1.5 h 17 39
 1.5–2.0 h 1 17
 ≥ 2.0 h 0 20
  1. *Missing data in 23 patients. Data presented by median ± IQR or mean ± SD
  2. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, GCS glasgow coma scale, SBP systolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, INR international normalised ratio, ISS injury severity score