Skip to main content

Table 1: Key scientific evidence for the presence of biofilm in human wounds

From: Biofilm delays wound healing: A review of the evidence

Wound type No. Methods Observations Reference
Chronic wounds 50 Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 30 (60%) chronic wounds observed to contain biofilm James et al. (2008)[10]
Acute wounds 16 Light microscopy, SEM 1 (6%) acute wound contained biofilm James et al. (2008)[10]
Chronic wounds 22 Confocal microscopy 13 (59%) chronic wounds contained biofilm Kirketerp-Møller et al. (2008)[11
Chronic wounds 2 Fluorescence microscopy Both samples contained biofilm Bjarnsholt et al. (2008)[14]
Chronic wounds 10 Fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm seen deeper in wound bed than Staphylococcus aureus Fazli et al. (2009)[15]
Chronic wounds 10 Fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy P. aeruginosa biofilm elicited greater inflammation than S. aureus Fazli et al. (2011)[16]
Mixed etiologies 15 Fluorescence microscopy 7 (47%) wounds contained biofilm Han et al. (2011)[17]
Diabetic foot ulcers 2 Confocal microscopy Both samples contained biofilm Neut et al. (2011)[18]
Full-thickness burns 11 Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, SEM Ulcerated areas and escharotomy sites contained biofilm; non-ulcerated areas did not Kennedy et al. (2010)[19]