Characteristics of MSCs from adult healthy bone marrow (Modified from Yan et al.) (a) Representative morphology of MSCs derived from healthy adult bone marrow. (b) Flow cytometry analysis of BM-MSC showed that BM-MSC is positive for mesenchymal markers and negative for endothelial and hematopoietic markers. (c) After specific adipogenic induction, BM-MSCs showed many lipid vacuoles that were verified by Oil Red O staining. (d) After being cultured in an osteogenic medium for 4 weeks, BM-MSCs showed early osteogenic differentiation capacity through ALP staining. Late calcium deposits in the extracellular matrix were verified by von Kossa staining. (e) BM-MSCs demonstrated chondrogenic differentiation potential as shown by toluidine blue staining, Alcian blue staining, Safranin O staining and H&E staining (cited from Fiorina et al).