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Table 1: Summary of available seed cells in TES constructs

From: Current progress of skin tissue engineering: Seed cells, bioscaffolds, and construction strategies

Source Potential usages Autologous possibility Identified isolation Unlimited propagation Pluripotency Immunogenicity Tumorigenicity Legal restriction Reference
Skin-derived seed cells          
Keratinocytes E •*     [4–6]
Dermal fibroblasts D      [17, 19]
Epidermal stem cells E/D     [20, 22, 25, 26]
Melanocytes E      [30]
Non-cutaneous cells          
Embryonic stem cells E/D   •*    [32–34, 36]
Inducible pluripotent stem cells E/D •* [32, 40–42]
Mesenchymal stem cells E/D      [47, 48, 50, 51]
Endothelial cells D      [58, 59]
Amniotic cells E/D        [63, 64]
  1. E, epidermis; D, dermis; E/D, epidermis or dermis; •, reported character; *, feeder cell needed