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Table 1 Pharmaceutical products for scar management

From: Biomaterials and tissue engineering for scar management in wound care

  Materials In vivo/in vitro Function Ref
Pharmaceutical products for scar management Pycnogenol In vivo Decreasing oxidized ascorbate, providing inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinases, and supporting collagen matrix formation [15]
Relaxin In vivo Enhancing the normal wound healing process by increasing angiogenesis, reducing scar formation and granulation tissue, and contributing to a well-organized collagen framework [16]
Astragalus membranaceus (AR) In vivo Suppressing inflammation and promoting basal cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and linear alignment of the granulation tissue [17]
Astragaloside IV In vitro and in vivo Inhibiting the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) secretion, regulating the ratio of collagen type I/type III in the remodeling stage to reduce scarring [18]
Crocodile oil In vivo Decreasing the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions of TGF-β1and Smad3 [19]
Curcumin In vivo Suppressing TGF-β1/SMAD pathway and extra cellular matrix (ECM) production in primary keloid fibroblasts and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) [20]
Honey In vitro Stimulating monocytes (MM6 cells) to secrete cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1 and IL-6, degrading collagen IV through stimulation of the matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) during the reepithelialization process of wound repair [21]
c-Ski In vivo Modulating wound healing and scar formation through modulating fibroblast functions, reducing scar formation by decreasing collagen production, and reducing the protuberant height and volume of scars and increasing collagen maturity in a hypertrophic scar model, effecting TGF-β1 signaling through both Smad2/3-dependent and Smad-independent pathways [27, 28]
Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK) In vivo Mediating connective tissue growth factor expression in corneal wound healing [29]
Calpains In vivo and in vitro Playing a major role in granulation tissue formation [30]
MG53 In vivo and in vitro Facilitating injury repair and inhibiting myofibroblast differentiation and an effective means for promoting scarless wound healing [31]
  1. AR astragalus membranaceus, TGF-β1 transforming growth factor beta 1, mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid, ECM extracellular matrix, IL interleukins, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor alpha, MMP-9 matrix metalloproteinases 9, JNK jun amino-terminal kinases