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Table 2 Biomaterial-based dressings for scar management

From: Biomaterials and tissue engineering for scar management in wound care

  Materials In vivo/vitro Function Ref
Biomaterials composed of natural polymers Hyaluronic acid (HA) in ECM In vivo Reducing TGF-β1 level in the wound, maintaining optimal viscoelastic properties of the ECM, and decreasing levels of fibronectin, fibromodulin, procollagen I, and HA synthase [3234]
Genipin cross-linked gelatin (GCG) and collagen sheets In vivo Scarless nerve regeneration, favorable nerve functional recovery [35]
Microbial cellulose In vivo Improving the healing rate, decreasing pain and reducing scar tissue formation, necrotic debris removal, new cell migration and growth, and prompting reepithelialization 36
Collagen membrane cross-linked with glutaraldehyde In vivo Oral scar reducing, controlling infection in primary healing stage, and reducing growth of granulation tissue [37]
Electrospun nanofibrous dressings composited of silk fibroin/gelatin and cellulose acetate In vivo and in vitro Increasing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and existence of collagen type I [38, 39]
Electrospun silk fibroin nanomatrix In vivo Reducing the wound healing period and scar formation [40]
Biomaterials incorporated with bioactive molecules Genipin-modified collagen sheets In vivo Reducing scars in first- and second-degree burns, assisting the synthesis of neodermal collagen matrices [35, 41]
Polyvinyl alcohol–sodium alginate gel-matrix-based wound dressing system containing nitrofurazone In vivo Keeping wound moist and prevent secondary damage, mild positive effects on inflammatory phase and create reducing wound size [42]
Multifunctional acellular biologic scaffold In vivo Selective delivery and release of shielded biomaterials and bioactive substances, scaffolds help in vascularization, blood vessel formation, and keeps body temperature [43]
Commercial calcium alginate In vivo Scarring prevention by moisture management and regulating amount of exudates in wound during the healing [45]
Ginsenoside Rg3-loaded electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibrous membranes In vitro Scar prevention, decreasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mRNA, and collagen type I [49]
Norfloxacin-loaded collagen/chitosan scaffold In vivo Controlling infection which contributes to lower inflammation, higher new cell growth, and faster wound closure [50]
Dressing of polyester fabric containing elemental silver and zinc In vivo Promoting collagen synthesis and reepithelialization rate [51, 52]
  1. HA hyaluronic acid, ECM extracellular matrix, TGF-β1 transforming growth factor beta 1, GCG genipin cross-linked gelatin, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, PLGA poly(lactic-co-gly acid)