Friction burns are often the result of high-energy trauma, and therefore, the associated injuries typically take precedence with respect to the timing of treatment and triage. This delay in treatment can result in additional morbidity. While the etiologies of deep friction burns in children are commonly treadmills [10, 11] and vacuum cleaner belts , deep friction burns in adults are most often associated with high-energy trauma and, as such, with long bone fractures, pelvic fractures, and/or head injuries . The majority of burns caused by friction are superficial; however, pedestrians struck by motor vehicles on high-temperature road surfaces are more likely to sustain third degree friction burns and therefore require excision and skin grafting. Since the initial insult to the skin is a thermal burn injury caused by friction, the zone of injury may not be defined at the acute evaluation and may need observation for declaration of ischemia. If the skin and/or subcutaneous tissues are traumatically separated from the overlying fascia (MLL), as in the case presented here, perfusion to the overlying skin is further compromised from transection or thrombosis of perforators, thus creating a more complex soft tissue injury.
Obesity also complicates the discovery of MLL and may contribute to delays in diagnosis, as was the case for the patient presented here. Furthermore, research suggests that obesity and diabetes are associated with abnormal dermal functioning, and obese murine models suggest a reduction in dermal layer favoring more adipose tissue, particularly in the deep dermis (hypodermis) as well as in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which potentially allows the skin to slide easier over the deep fascia of the trunk .
A degloving injury is a separation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the fixed underlying fascia, which can compromise capillary perfusion and blood vessels traveling through this island of tissue. MLLs are a form of closed degloving injury caused by trauma that delivers a shearing force to the soft tissues . MLL occurs most commonly around the hip and is well described in the orthopedic literature. These lesions require early surgical intervention to prevent complications from seroma and hematoma formation and subsequent infection of these collections. Surgical intervention consists of incision and drainage or, in more severe cases, debridement of overlying devascularized soft tissue. In the acute setting, computerized tomography (CT) scanning may demonstrate a small, simple hematoma, as it may take some time for the potential space to fill. Active arterial extravasation is noted in less than 1/3 of cases ; therefore, the evolution and continued drainage of hemolymphatic fluid increases radiologic accuracy over time. The average measurement of Hounsfield units (HU) reflect the internal contents of MLLs varying based on age: acute 30 HU, subacute 16 HU, and chronic 6 HU .
The natural history of MLL has yet to be completely described  but are typically classified into three different subtypes based on imaging: seroma, subacute hematoma, and chronic hematoma. The genesis of the fluid accumulation is typically from disruption of blood vessels and lymphatics in the subcutaneous space overlying the fascia of the muscle. Chronic fluid accumulation can then become infected and turn into an acute abscess or encapsulated by a fibrous capsule over time if the collection remains sterile. Ultimately, the discovery and diagnosis of MLL is based on several factors, including skin mobility, subcutaneous fluctuation, decreased cutaneous sensation, tire marks, and friction burns .
The treatment options for MLL are based on the clinical presentation and timing of diagnosis. Patients with MLL after trauma always have compromised circulation to the skin and subcutaneous tissue in the injured segment and it is often difficult to determine the extent of injury and long term viability of the overlying tissue . Treatment options include serial excisional debridement followed by healing by secondary intention or skin grafting, percutaneous drainage, or sclerotherapy. There are no set standards or guidelines for the management of such lesions although the Mayo Clinic experience suggests operative intervention is required when more than 50mL of fluid has been aspirated from a patient being treated conservatively .